Who uses Mixed-Member Proportional Representation (MMPR) Now?

“Recent worldwide electoral trends show a rise in popularity of the mixed member system because of how it combines geographic, district-based representation with proportional representation.

“For decades, West Germany was the only nation to use [MMPR], having adopted it after World War II.  In the 1990’s, however, [MMPR] was adopted for elections in New Zealand, Scotland and Wales, and a modified form of [MMPR] was proposed by the Jenkins Commission to elect the British House of Commons.

“Several major countries in the 1990’s adopted ‘parallel’ mixed member systems that share several features with [MMPR], but are classified as semi-proportional systems.  The allocation of the party list seats is done in proportion to the party vote no matter what the results in the district elections, meaning that the largest party tends to win a disproportionately high share of seats.  Among countries using parallel mixed member systems are Mexico, Russia and the Ukraine.  Italy and Hungary also use mixed member systems that are classified as semi-proportional.” — Elections to the New Zealand House of Representatives

(Note the significant difference between MMPR, and “parallel” Mixed Member systems.”)

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